Who Was the First Hacker in History?

In the digital age, hacking has become a term synonymous with unauthorized access and manipulation of computer systems. However, the roots of hacking predate the digital era, tracing back to times when ‘hacking’ meant creatively overcoming technological limitations. The identity of the first hacker in history is a subject of debate, influenced by how we define hacking and its historical context.

Who Was the First Hacker in History?

Early Instances of Hacking

Long before the advent of computers, instances of hacking can be identified. One notable example is the manipulation of telegraph systems in the 19th century, where individuals would exploit vulnerabilities for amusement or advantage. This period marks the embryonic phase of hacking, setting a precedent for the manipulation of more complex electronic systems.

The Contenders for the Title of the ‘First Hacker’

Kevin Mitnick

A prominent figure in the hacking world, Kevin Mitnick began his journey in the late 20th century. His early exploits, involving unauthorized access to computer networks, highlight a modern interpretation of hacking.

Robert Tappan Morris

In 1988, Robert Tappan Morris created the Morris Worm, one of the first computer worms distributed via the internet, raising questions about intent and the inadvertent consequences of hacking.

Early Phone Phreaks: John Draper

John Draper, aka Captain Crunch, exploited vulnerabilities in the telephone system, an early example of hacking predating widespread computer use.

Theoretical First Hacker: Konrad Zuse

Konrad Zuse, a lesser-known figure, engineered the Z3, the world’s first programmable computer, in the 1940s. While not a hacker in the conventional sense, his pioneering work laid the groundwork for future hacking capabilities.

Discussion: Criteria for Defining the ‘First Hacker’

The title of ‘first hacker’ depends on how one weighs technological innovation against the intent to exploit systems. Additionally, the impact on the hacking culture and practices plays a crucial role in this definition.


The debate over the first hacker in history remains unresolved, with candidates ranging from telegraph manipulators to early computer enthusiasts. This reflection underscores the evolving nature of hacking and the continuous challenge it poses to cybersecurity.

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